• Greek philosopher (384–322BC) whose Earth-centred astronomy dominated the science for 18 centuries. The system set out by Aristotle eventually collapsed under the weight of its own contradictions, because it allowed only for uniform circular motions to preserve the perfection of the heavens. This called for more and more complex models of the universe, especially the orbits of the Sun, Moon and planets about the Earth, until in the 16th century AD a system of Sun-centred orbits of elliptical shape was adopted instead. His work in zoology, notably in animal classification, was also notable.

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