• US mission to the Moon in 1994. Clementine was built and sent to the Moon cheaply out of the US defence budget’s funds for missile defence, to prove technology for operations in high-radiation environments, and cost only $75 million. It mapped the whole of the Moon with a resolution of a few tens of metres, in visible and infrared light, allowing its surface composition to be determined, as well as sending back detailed altimetry data on lunar surface heights. But it failed in its planned second mission, a flyby of the asteroid 1620 Geographos.

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