• A device incorporating two dissimilar metals which are welded or otherwise joined at their ends, and in which a temperature difference at the junction generates a proportional electromotive force. The converse is also true, that is, a temperature change is produced at said junction when a current passes through the device. The former phenomenon is explained by the Seebeck effect, and the latter by the Peltier effect. Thermocouples typically use semiconductor metals, such as bismuth and tellurium, and are utilized, for instance, as thermometers, or for the conversion of heat energy into electric energy.

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